9 x 19 mm Parabellum

9 x 19 mm Parabellum – the most widely used pistol cartridge in the world. Developed by DWM in 1902 originally for the Parabellum pistol (Luger P08), for which the 7.65 x 21 Parabellum cartridge was originally developed. However, after military tests, the 9 x 19 mm Parabellum cartridge was preferred. It was adopted as the standard cartridge by the German Navy in 1904 and by the German Army in 1908. It is currently the standard pistol cartridge of NATO countries. The markings on the cartridge cases go from 12 o'clock where the manufacturer's code is found, to 3 o'clock an star indicating brass in a copper/zinc ratio of 72/28. At 6 o'clock the batch number (one batch = 1 million pieces). At 9 o'clock the year of manufacture.

"cdp" – Theodor Bergmann & Co., K. G., Waffen- und Munitionsfabrik, Werk Bernau, Germany. Theodor Bergmann and his son Emil Bergmann were important industrialists and inventors of, among other things, firearms. Not much information has survived about the munitions factory in Bernau near Berlin. Interesting is the information on the use of forced labour during the Second World War, both prisoners of war and people from all over German-occupied Europe at the time, as well as prisoners from concentration camps.

"dnh"Rheinische-Westfaelische Sprengstoff AG (RWS), Werk Karlsruhe-Durlach, Germany. It should be the same ammunition plant as the DWM (see the 7.65 x 17 mm Browning cartridge). Probably cartridges produced as a subcontract for RWS.